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Adhesion mechanisms mediated by probiotics and prebiotics and their potential impact on human health

Monteagudo-Mera, Andrea, Rastall, Robert A., Gibson, Glenn R., Charalampopoulos, Dimitris, Chatzifragkou, Afroditi
Applied microbiology and biotechnology 2019 v.103 no.16 pp. 6463-6472
absorption barrier, adhesion, anti-infective agents, antibiosis, bacterial adhesion, binding sites, biochemical pathways, cell lines, competitive exclusion, enteropathogens, epithelium, human health, immunomodulators, in vitro studies, intestines, mouth, prebiotics, probiotics, protective effect, receptors, toxins
Adhesion ability to the host is a classical selection criterion for potential probiotic bacteria that could result in a transient colonisation that would help to promote immunomodulatory effects, as well as stimulate gut barrier and metabolic functions. In addition, probiotic bacteria have a potential protective role against enteropathogens through different mechanisms including production of antimicrobial compounds, reduction of pathogenic bacterial adhesion and competition for host cell binding sites. The competitive exclusion by probiotic bacteria has a beneficial effect not only on the gut but also in the urogenital tract and oral cavity. On the other hand, prebiotics may also act as barriers to pathogens and toxins by preventing their adhesion to epithelial receptors. In vitro studies with different intestinal cell lines have been widely used along the last decades to assess the adherence ability of probiotic bacteria and pathogen antagonism. However, extrapolation of these results to in vivo conditions still remains unclear, leading to the need of optimisation of more complex in vitro approaches that include interaction with the resident microbiota to address the current limitations. The aim of this mini review is to provide a comprehensive overview on the potential effect of the adhesive properties of probiotics and prebiotics on the host by focusing on the most recent findings related with adhesion and immunomodulatory and antipathogenic effect on human health.