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Sulfadiazine biodegradation by Phanerochaete chrysosporium: Mechanism and degradation product identification
- Zhang, Ting, Cai, Ling, Xu, Bentuo, Li, Xicheng, Qiu, Wenhui, Fu, Caixia, Zheng, Chunmiao
- Chemosphere 2019 v.237 pp. 124418
- Phanerochaete chrysosporium, antibiotics, biodegradation, culture media, enzyme activity, manganese peroxidase, metabolism, pH, peroxidase, sequence analysis, soil, sulfadiazine, surface water, transcriptomics
- Antibiotic contaminants have become a severe environmental problem in recent years and finding effective ways to deal with this issue is of great importance. In this study, Phanerochaete chrysosporium was used to degrade sulfadiazine (SDZ), which is frequently detected in the culture medium of isolates from soil and surface water systems. The results demonstrate that 10 mg L−1 SDZ can be completely degraded by P. chrysosporium under conditions of pH 5.7 and 30 °C within 6 days. The Q-Exactive-MS/MS analysis identified and confirmed several different SDZ degradation intermediates, and four proposed degradation pathways of SDZ were deduced. Moreover, enzyme activity tests revealed that manganese peroxidase and ligninolytic peroxidase played important roles in SDZ degradation. Moreover, a transcriptome analysis method was performed to explore the mechanism and pathways of SDZ degradation by P. chrysosporium in greater detail. The results of GO and KEGG analysis strongly suggest that the metabolism pathway is significantly activated and plays an important role in antibiotic degradation. Further, this is the first study to identify SDZ degradation intermediates and two main intermediates were found to be involved in possible SDZ degradation pathways. This study is also the first report results from RNA sequencing to evaluate genome-wide changes of P. chrysosporium to further explore SDZ degradation mechanism.