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Disruption of galectin-3 and galectin-3 binding protein (G3BP) interaction by dietary pectic polysaccharides (DPP) - Arrest of metastasis, inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis

Natarajamurthy, Sindhuja Heggavadipura, Sistla, Srinivas, Dharmesh, Shylaja M.
International journal of biological macromolecules 2019 v.139 pp. 486-499
Daucus carota, antineoplastic activity, apoptosis, beta-carotene, binding proteins, carrots, cyclophosphamide, deferoxamine, drug therapy, galectins, ginger, immunomodulation, in vitro studies, macrophages, metastasis, neoplasms, pectins, surface plasmon resonance, tissues
Galectin-3 and galectin-3 binding proteins (G3BP) are implicated as key players in metastasis. In the current study, we evaluated the effect of pectic polysaccharides on galectin-3 and G3BP mediated metastasis in vitro (cells) and in vivo (tissues). In vitro study (double immunostaining) confirms the presence of galectin-3 on the cell surface and G3BP in the interlinking region of the cells confirming the role of G3BP in bridging galectin-3 molecules. Dietary carrot (Daucus carota) pectic polysaccharide (CRPP) blocked the expression of galectin-3 and G3BP more effectively (80%), whereas the expressions were reduced to 60% upon treatment with swallow root (Decalepis hamiltonii) pectic polysaccharide (SRPP), β‑carotene and deferoxamine (antiproliferative drug). Ginger (Gingiber officinale) pectic polysaccharide (GRPP) showed only 20% reduction. CRPP reduced 80% of tumor incidence followed by cyclophosphamide - a chemotherapeutic drug (77%), SRPP (67%) and GRPP (45%). Further 3–5 folds reduction in galectin-3/G3BP expression followed by infiltration of macrophages into the deeper layer of the skin by CRPP and SRPP suggested the anticancer property via immunomodulation. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) studies confirm galectin-3 and G3BP interaction, which are disrupted during the treatment with dietary pectic polysaccharides (DPP) (Supplementary Scheme-1). Overall data demonstrate the role of DPPs as potential anticancer alternatives.