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Multilocus Genotypes of the Wheat Leaf Rust Fungus Puccinia triticina in Worldwide Regions Indicate Past and Current Long-Distance Migration
- Kolmer, J. A., Ordoñez, M. E., German, S., Morgounov, A., Pretorius, Z., Visser, B., Goyeau, H., Anikster, Y., Acevedo, M.
- Phytopathology 2019 v.109 no.8 pp. 1453-1463
- Puccinia recondita, Triticum, asexual reproduction, crop production, ecological zones, genes, genetic relationships, geographical distribution, heterozygosity, leaf rust, loci, microsatellite repeats, phenotype, plant pathogenic fungi, production technology, urediniospores, virulence, wheat, Central Asia, Middle East, North America, Russia, South America
- Many plant pathogenic fungi have a global distribution across diverse ecological zones and agricultural production systems. Puccinia triticina, the wheat leaf rust fungus, is a major pathogen in many wheat production areas of the world. The objective of this research was to determine the genetic relatedness of P. triticina in different worldwide regions. A total of 831 single-uredinial isolates collected from 11 regions were characterized for multilocus genotype at 23 simple sequence repeat loci and for virulence to 20 lines of wheat with single genes for leaf rust resistance. A total of 424 multilocus genotypes and 497 virulence phenotypes were found. All populations had high heterozygosity and significant correlation between virulence and molecular variation, which indicated clonal reproduction. The populations from North America and South America, Central Asia and Russia, and the Middle East and Europe were closely related for multilocus genotypes and many individual isolates from other continental regions were closely related. Twenty-seven multilocus genotypes were found in more than one continental region, and 13 of these had isolates with identical virulence phenotypes. The wide geographic distribution of identical and highly related multilocus genotypes of P. triticina indicated past and more recent migration events facilitated by the spread of clonally produced urediniospores.