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Assessment of body water distribution in patients with sepsis during fluid resuscitation using multi-frequency direct segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis

Park, Inwon, Lee, Jae Hyuk, Jang, Dong-Hyun, Kim, Joonghee, Hwang, Bo Rah, Kim, Seoyoung, Lee, Ji Eun, Jo, You Hwan
Clinical nutrition 2020 v.39 no.6 pp. 1826-1831
adults, bioelectrical impedance, body water, body weight, edema, patients, prognosis, prospective studies, sepsis (infection), water distribution
Although initial fluid resuscitation in sepsis is critical for the treatment of tissue hypoperfusion, little evidence supports the distribution of infused fluid in patients with sepsis. This study was designed to assess the body water distribution in patients with sepsis using bioelectrical impedance analysis and correlate the trend in body water distribution during fluid treatment with the prognosis of patients with sepsis.A prospective study in a single emergency department was performed, and adult patients suspected of having sepsis were enrolled. Multi-frequency direct segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (InBody S10, InBody) measuring total body water (TBW), intracellular water (ICW), and extracellular water (ECW) was applied to patients with sepsis at three periods: before, immediately after, and 1 hour after the fluid treatment. Survival data at 28 days after the fluid treatment were obtained.Forty-two patients were enrolled in this study. Overall, the ratios of TBW, ICW, and ECW to body weight increased throughout the fluid treatment except the ratio of ICW to body weight at 1 hour in non-survivors. While the ratio of ECW to TBW (ECW/TBW) and the ratio of ICW to TBW (ICW/TBW) in survivors remained stable over the period, the trend of ECW/TBW increased with corresponding decline of ICW/TBW in non-survivors (p = 0.0085 and p = 0.0034 between times and groups, respectively) such that ECW/TBW and ICW/TBW were significantly different at 1 hour after the fluid loading period (p = 0.0120 and p = 0.0085, respectively). This contrast pattern was equivalent with the trend of ECW/TBW in trunk but not that of the other extremities.During fluid resuscitation, the trend in ECW/TBW significantly increased with corresponding decrease of ICW/TBW in non-survivors compared with that in survivors, which suggests fluid resuscitation results intracellular dehydration and extracellular edema in non-survivors of patients with sepsis.