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The fate of medium-chain fatty acids in very long-chain acyl‑CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD): A matter of sex?

Wehbe, Zeinab, Alatibi, Khaled, Jellusova, Julia, Spiekerkoetter, Ute, Tucci, Sara
Biochimica et biophysica acta 2019 v.1864 no.11 pp. 1591-1605
Western blotting, acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, animal models, basal metabolism, beta oxidation, biochemical pathways, biosynthesis, females, gene expression regulation, genes, long chain fatty acids, medium chain triacylglycerols, metabolic syndrome, mice, mitogen-activated protein kinase, octanoic acid, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, phenotype, proteomics, sexual dimorphism, signal transduction
Medium-chain-triglycerides (MCT) are widely applied in the treatment of long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders (lcFAOD). Long-term treatment with MCT led to a sexually dimorphic response in the mouse model of very-long-chain-acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase-deficiency (VLCAD−/−) with the subsequent development of a metabolic syndrome in female mice.In order to evaluate the molecular mechanisms responsible for this sex specific response we performed a comprehensive metabolic phenotyping, SILAC-based quantitative proteomics and characterized the involved signaling pathways by western blot analysis and gene expression.WT and VLCAD−/− mice showed strong sex-dependent differences in basal metabolism and expression of proteins involved in the distinct metabolic pathways, even more prominent after treatment with octanoate. The investigation of molecular mechanisms responsible for the sexual dimorphisms delineated the selective activation of the ERK/mTORc1 signaling pathway leading to an increased biosynthesis and elongation of fatty acids in VLCAD−/− females. In contrast, octanoate induced the activation of ERK/PPARγ pathway and the subsequent upregulation of peroxisomal β‑oxidation in males.We here provide first evidence that sex has to be considered as important variable in disease phenotype. These findings may have implications on treatment strategies in the different sexes.