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Acute phase proteins and biomarkers of oxidative status in feline spontaneous malignant mammary tumours

Vilhena, Hugo, Tvarijonaviciute, Asta, Cerón, José J., Figueira, Ana C., Miranda, Sónia, Ribeiro, Ana, Canadas, Ana, Dias‐Pereira, Patrícia, Rubio, Camila P., Franco, Lorena, Tecles, Fernando, Cabeças, Ricardo, Pastor, Josep, Silvestre‐Ferreira, Ana C.
Veterinary and comparative oncology 2019 v.17 no.3 pp. 394-406
acute phase proteins, albumins, amyloid, antioxidant activity, antioxidants, biomarkers, blood serum, carcinoma, cats, chemical species, cholinesterase, females, glutathione peroxidase, haptoglobins, immunologic factors, inflammation, lymph nodes, mammary neoplasms (animal), metastasis, multivariate analysis, nutritional status, oxidative stress, prognosis, thiols
Acute phase proteins (APP) and biomarkers of oxidative status change in human and canine mammary tumours, however, they have not been studied in feline mammary tumours. The aims of this study were to investigate the APP and antioxidant responses in feline malignant mammary tumours, to evaluate their relation with tumour features, and to assess their prognostic value. Serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), albumin, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), insulin‐like growth factor1 (IGF1), paraoxonase1 (PON1), total serum thiols (Thiol), glutathione peroxidase (GPox) and total antioxidant capacity determined by different assays, including trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assessed by two different methodologies (TEAC1/2), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), were determined in serum of 50 queens with spontaneous mammary carcinomas and of 12 healthy female cats. At diagnosis, diseased queens presented significantly higher SAA and Hp, and lower albumin, BChE, GPox, TEAC1, TEAC2 and CUPRAC than controls. Different tumour features influenced concentrations of APP and antioxidants. Increases in serum Hp, and decreases in albumin, Thiol and FRAP were significantly associated with neoplastic vascular emboli, metastasis in regional lymph nodes and/or in distant organs. Distant metastasis development during the course of the disease was associated with increases in SAA and TEAC1. At diagnosis, decreased albumin was associated with a longer survival, and BChE <1.15 μmoL/mL.minute was associated with a shorter survival time on multivariate analysis. Feline malignant mammary tumours are associated with an APP response and oxidative stress, and different tumour features influence the inflammatory response and the oxidative damage. Furthermore, some of these analytes proved to have prognostic value.