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Hepatoprotective effect of N-acetylcystein loaded niosomes on liver function in paraquat-induced acute poisoning

Firouzian, Farzin, Pourshoja, Parisa, Nili-Ahmadabadi, Amir, Ranjbar, Akram
Pesticide biochemistry and physiology 2019 v.160 pp. 146-153
alanine transaminase, antioxidant activity, aspartate transaminase, aspartic acid, biomarkers, blood serum, cysteine, drug therapy, eosin, hepatoprotective effect, hepatotoxicity, histology, inflammation, lipid peroxidation, liver, liver diseases, liver function, males, nanoparticles, niosomes, oxidative stress, paraquat, poisoning, rats, sodium chloride, staining, thiols
Paraquat (PQ) is widely used as a herbicide around the world. PQ intoxication causes liver disease mainly in mammals. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) is a medication that has positive effects in reducing the liver intoxication caused by PQ. Here, after formulating a NAC noisome nanoparticle (NACNP), we compared the niosomes and NAC on liver toxicity caused by PQ. Thirty male rats were divided into 5 groups and were treated intraperitoneally with PQ and NAC and NACNP for 24 h. PQ group received 35 mg/kg/day of PQ, while NAC and NACNP groups were administered with 25 mg/kg/day of NAC and NACNP, respectively. In addition, 6 rats receiving saline solution were considered as control group. Serum and liver tissue samples were collected from all rats. Alanine (AST) and aspartate (ALT) aminotransferase levels, and oxidative stress biomarkers including total antioxidant capacity (TAC), lipid peroxidation (LPO), and total thiol groups (TTG) levels were determined. Histological samples were also analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin staining slides. PQ administration resulted in hepatic injury as evidenced by increases in serum AST and ALT levels (p < .001). NACNP decreased LPO, TAC, and TTG levels compered to PQ group in liver tissue. Treatment of animals with NACNP was significantly more effective than free NAC in reducing PQ-induced hepatotoxicity (p < .05). Histological evaluation showed that PQ caused tissue inflammation, which was reduced by NAC treatment. This reduction was stronger for NACNP. Given these results, the use of NACNP, compared to NAC, was more protective against the development of the PQ-induced liver toxicity.