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Dual priming oligonucleotide (DPO)-based real-time RT-PCR assay for accurate differentiation of four major viruses causing porcine viral diarrhea

Jia, Shuo, Feng, Baohua, Wang, Zhuo, Ma, Yingying, Gao, Xuwen, Jiang, Yanping, Cui, Wen, Qiao, Xinyuan, Tang, Lijie, Li, Yijing, Wang, Li, Xu, Yigang
Molecular and cellular probes 2019
DNA, Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, Transmissible gastroenteritis virus, detection limit, diarrhea, epidemiological studies, financial economics, genes, industry, mixed infection, nucleic acid annealing, oligonucleotides, piglets, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, temperature, China
Currently in China, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine rotavirus (PoRV), and porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) are the major causes of porcine viral diarrhea, and mixed infections in clinics are common, resulting in significant economic losses in pig industry. Here, a dual priming oligonucleotide (DPO)-based multiplex real-time SYBR Green RT-PCR assay were developed for accurately differentiating PEDV, TGEV, PoRV, and PDCoV in clinical specimens targeting the N gene of TGEV, PEDV, and PDCoV, and the VP7 gene of PoRV. Results showed that the DPO primer allowed a wider annealing temperature range (40–65 °C) and had a higher priming specificity compared to conventional primer, in which more than 3 nucleotides in the 3′- or 5′-segment of DPO primer mismatched with DNA template, PCR amplification efficiency would decrease substantially or extension would not proceed. DPO-based multiplex real-time RT-PCR method had analytical detection limit of 8.63 × 102 copies/μL, 1.92 × 102 copies/μL, 1.74 × 102 copies/μL, and 1.76 × 102 copies/μL for PEDV, TGEV, PoRV, and PDCoV in clinical specimens, respectively. A total of 672 clinical specimens of piglets with diarrheal symptoms were collected in Northeastern China from 2017 to 2018 followed by analysis using the assay, and epidemiological investigation results showed that PEDV, TGEV, PoRV, and PDCoV prevalence was 19.05%, 5.21%, 4.32%, and 3.87%, respectively. The assay developed in this study showed higher detection accuracy than conventional RT-PCR method, suggesting a useful tool for the accurate differentiation of the four major viruses causing porcine viral diarrhea in practice.