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Evaluation of cellular uptake mechanisms for AuNP-collagen-Avemar nanocarrier on transformed and non-transformed cell lines

Hung, Huey-Shan, Bau, Da-Tian, Yeh, Chun-An, Kung, Mei-Lang
Colloids and surfaces 2019
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, anorexia, apoptosis, biocompatibility, biopolymers, cachexia, cell cycle, cell differentiation, cell lines, cell proliferation, collagen, cytotoxicity, diet therapy, dietary supplements, drugs, health services, image analysis, mouth neoplasms, nanocarriers, nanogold, neoplasm cells, particle size, toxicity testing, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, uptake mechanisms
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have well applied in imaging and carriers of drugs and/or biomolecules for diseases and cancers therapeutics, due to their tunable physicochemical properties, easy functionalized with biomolecules and biocompatibility. AuNPs conjugated with biopolymer such as collagen has been demonstrated that increased the cell proliferation, migration and cell differentiation. Avemar (Ave) is a nutraceutical from natural components and dietary supplement for healthcare of tumor related anorexia/cachexia. Moreover, Ave has revealed the excellent bio-efficacy of anti-proliferation, cell cycle disturbing and apoptosis induction in numerous types of tumor cells in in vivo and in vitro. However, the effects of Ave on cellular uptake mechanisms still unclear. In this study, we fabricate the Ave-deposited AuNP-collagen nanocarrier (AuNP-Col-Ave) and investigate their endocytic mechanisms in transformed SCC oral cancer cells and non-transformed BAEC and HSF cell lines. By using DLS assay, Ave-deposited AuNP-Col have shown a particle size of 303 ± 35.2 nm. Both UV-Vis absorption assay and FTIR spectrum analysis were also demonstrated that the Ave conjugated onto AuNP-Col. Further, both MTT assay and Calcein AM assay were revealed that AuNP-Col-Ave induced a significant cytotoxicity in cancerous SCC cells and showed nontoxicity and biocompatibility for non-transformed BAEC and HFS cells. In addition, AuNP-Col-Ave has showed an excellent uptake capacity in all these cell lines as compared to AuNP-Col group. Further uptake mechanisms analysis demonstrated that the macropinocytosis seems to be the favorite endocytic mechanism during AuNP-Col-Ave internalized into these transformed and non-transformed cell lines. Altogether, this study is first validating the endocytic mechanisms of AuNP-Col-Ave in transformed and non-transformed cell lines. Our findings will provide a novel insight for endocytic mechanisms of cellular uptake nutraceuticals during nutrition therapy and cancer prevention.