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Effect of different co-solvents on biodiesel production from various low-cost feedstocks using Sr–Al double oxides
- Ambat, Indu, Srivastava, Varsha, Iftekhar, Sidra, Haapaniemi, Esa, Sillanpää, Mika
- Renewable energy 2020 v.146 pp. 2158-2169
- Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, acetone, biodiesel, carbon, catalysts, catalytic activity, cooking fats and oils, fatty acid methyl esters, feedstocks, fuel production, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, kitchen waste, lard, methanol, nanomaterials, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, oxides, scanning electron microscopy, stable isotopes, tetrahydrofuran, transesterification, transmission electron microscopy
- The main objective of the present paper comprises the investigation of biodiesel production from low-cost feedstock such as lard oil and waste cooking oil (WCO) using Sr–Al double oxides. Nanocatalyst was characterised FTIR, XRD, SEM, TEM, BET and XPS. The Sr:Al with 3:1 M ratio showed the best catalytic activity in the conversion of both oils to fatty acid methyl ester. The effect of acetone and tetrahydrofuran (THF) as a co-solvent for transesterification were compared and the best result was obtained with 5% THF. The mutual effect of the nanocatalyst and co-solvent on biodiesel production was investigated. The characterisation of biodiesel synthesised from lard oil and WCO was performed with GC-MS, 1H and 13C NMR. Moreover, the optimum reaction parameters for transesterification reaction was analysed and the yield was determined by 1H NMR. The maximum yield of 99.7% and 99.4% of lard oil methyl ester and WCO biodiesel were observed with a 0.9 wt% catalyst amount, 1:5.5 oil to methanol ratio in a reaction time of 45 min at 50 °C and 60 °C, respectively. The properties of biodiesel from lard oil and WCO were determined by the EN 14214 method. The regeneration, characterisation and reusability of regenerated catalyst was observed.