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Sanguinarine caused larval lethality and growth inhibition by suppressing energy metabolism in silkworms, Bombyx mori

Li, Ping, Hu, Jing-wei, Wen, Chao-wei, Hang, Yang, Zhou, Zhuo-hua, Xie, Min, Lv, Jia-cheng, Wang, Chun-meng, Huang, Ying-Hao, Xu, Jia-ping, Deng, Ming-jie
Pesticide biochemistry and physiology 2019 v.160 pp. 154-162
Bombyx mori, Papaveraceae, anti-inflammatory activity, antioxidants, citrates, death, energy metabolism, fumarates, genes, growth retardation, hemolymph, hydrolysis, larvae, magnetism, malates, metabolites, metabolomics, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, oral administration, pests, pyruvic acid, quantitative analysis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, sanguinarine, silkworms, toxicity testing, transcription (genetics), trehalase, trehalose
Sanguinarine (Sang) is a natural alkaloid and distributed in several plants of Papaveraceae. The antitumor, antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects of Sang were extensively reported, but its speciality and mechanism against Lepidoptera insects were still unknown. In this study, detailed toxicological parameters of Sang against silkworms, Bombyx mori (B. mori), were determined by a toxicological test. Then, a nuclear magnetic resonance-based (NMR) metabolomics method was adopted to analyze the changes in hemolymph metabolites of silkworms after feeding Sang. The growth of fourth-instar larvae was significantly ceased by the oral administration of 0.05–0.3% Sang and vast deaths appeared in 0.3% Sang group on Day 4 and Day 5. The quantitative analysis of metabolites indicated that trehalose and citrate levels in hemolymph were increased after 24 h of feeding 0.3% Sang, whereas the concentrations of pyruvate, succinate, malate and fumarate were decreased. In addition, the enzymatic determination and reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) showed that the trehalase (THL) activity and the transcriptional level of one gene coding THL were uniformly weakened by 0.3% Sang. One of the important mechanisms of Sang against silkworms might be interpreted as follows. Sang impaired trehalose hydrolysis, reduced THL activity and transcription, and led to the inhibition of energy metabolism, consequent antigrowth and high lethality in larvae of B. mori. Our findings offered new insights into the insecticidal effect of Sang from the perspective of energy metabolism and provided the basis for the application of Sang in the control of Lepidoptera pests.