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One representative water supply system in China with nitrosamine concern: Challenges and treatment strategies

Qiu, Yu, Bei, Er, Wang, Yufang, Wang, Jun, Zhang, Xiaojian, Chen, Chao
Journal of environmental sciences (China) 2020 v.88 pp. 12-20
activated carbon, ammonium, chlorine, cities, disinfection, drinking water treatment, neutralization, nitrosamines, ozonation, pretreatment, tap water, water supply, China
Four sampling campaigns were conducted in two years to understand the fluctuation of N-Nitrosamines (NAs) and their precursors in one drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) in East China in different seasons. This water supply system has been facing several nitrosamine challenges related with source water, including the switch of water source, high concentration of ammonium, formed NAs and NA formation potential (FP) in source water. Besides, the use of ozonation in the DWTP and chloramination in networks will increase the NDMA concentration in tap water. To address these challenges, the bio-pretreatment was applied in this DWTP to decrease the concentration of ammonium and NAs. The following biological activated carbon (BAC) will neutralize the nitrosamine increase brought by ozonation. The use of free chlorine in disinfection process will also decrease the NDMA formation compared with chloramination. The results will benefit other cities in China and other countries with similar impacted water sources.