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Influence of Water Intake and Balance on Body Composition in Healthy Young Adults from Spain

Laja García, Ana Isabel, Moráis-Moreno, Carmen, Samaniego-Vaesken, Mª de Lourdes, Puga, Ana M., Partearroyo, Teresa, Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio
Nutrients 2019 v.11 no.8
analysis of variance, bioelectrical impedance, body fat, body water, females, obesity, public health, waist circumference, water content, weight control, young adults, Spain
The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity has become an epidemic public health problem worldwide. In the last years, several investigations have suggested that water intake and retention could have important implications for both weight management and body composition. However, there is a lack of information about this issue globally, and mainly specifically in Spain. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the association between hydration status and body composition in a sample of healthy Spanish adults. The study involved 358 subjects, aged 18&ndash;39 years. The recently validated &ldquo;hydration status questionnaire&rdquo; was used to assess their water intake, elimination, and balance. Anthropometric measurements were performed according to the recommendations of the International Standards for Anthropometric Assessment (ISAK). Body composition variables were acquired by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Differences in anthropometric and body composition variables were assessed through the ANOVA test and considered significant at p < 0.05. Fluid intake was correlated with body water content. Inverse associations between water consumption, normalized by weight, with body weight, body fat mass, and waist circumference were found. Moreover, according to water balance, significant differences in body water content in females were observed. In conclusion, higher fluid intake seems to be related with a healthier body composition. Therefore, the improvement of water intake and water balance could be useful for overweight and obesity prevention, although further studies are needed to confirm the present findings.