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Aqueous carbofuran removal using slow pyrolyzed sugarcane bagasse biochar: equilibrium and fixed-bed studies
- Vimal, Vineet, Patel, Manvendra, Mohan, Dinesh
- RSC advances 2019 v.9 no.45 pp. 26338-26350
- Gibbs free energy, adsorbents, adsorption, biochar, carbofuran, desorption, enthalpy, entropy, ethanol, hydrogen bonding, oxygen, pH, pyrolysis, sorption isotherms, sugarcane bagasse, temperature
- Herein, biochar was produced by the slow pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse at 500 °C in absence of oxygen. The resulting sugarcane bagasse biochar (SB500) was characterized and used for aqueous carbofuran sorptive removal. Batch carbofuran sorption studies were accomplished to ascertain the influence of solution pH, contact time, temperature (25, 35 and 45 °C) and adsorbate/adsorbent concentration. SB500 adsorbed more carbofuran at low pH values and less carbofuran at high pH values. The necessary sorption equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were determined. The equilibrium isotherm data were fitted to the Freundlich, Langmuir and Temkin models. The Langmuir equation best fitted the experimental sorption data. The maximum Langmuir adsorption capacity of 18.9 mg g⁻¹ was obtained at pH 6.0 and 45 °C. The enthalpy change (ΔH°), entropy change (ΔS°) and Gibbs free energy (ΔG°) were evaluated. The fixed-bed carbofuran sorption studies were carried out using the optimum parameters determined via the batch studies. The necessary fixed-bed design parameters were obtained. Carbofuran desorption and SB500 regeneration were successfully achieved. About 96% of the total carbofuran was successfully desorbed from the exhausted biochar using 20 mL ethanol in 10 mL increments. Moreover, a possible carbofuran adsorption mechanism has been proposed. A number of interactions including (1) hydrogen bonding of the protonated and neutral carbofuran to biochar, (2) carbofuran sorption onto biochar via π–π electron donor–acceptor interactions and (3) carbofuran diffusion into the biochar pores were considered to explain the sorption mechanism. The batch and fixed-bed sorption results demonstrate that the sugarcane bagasse biochar (SB500) can be effectively used for the sustainable removal and recovery of carbofuran from water.