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Recent advances in cardanol chemistry in a nutshell: from a nut to nanomaterials

Balachandran, Vijai Shankar, Jadhav, Swapnil Rohidas, Vemula, Praveen Kumar, John, George
Chemical Society reviews 2012 v.42 no.2 pp. 427-438
Anacardium occidentale, byproducts, cashew nuts, food processing wastes, gels, glycolipids, hulls, industry, liquids, nanofibers, nanotubes, phenolic compounds, polymers, raw materials, surfactants
This tutorial review could serve as an introduction of cardanol into the world of soft nanomaterials; it is a biobased lipid-mixture obtained from the plant Anacardium occidentale L. Cardanol is a renewable raw material derived from a byproduct of cashew nut processing industry: Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL). Cardanol is a rich mixture of non-isoprenoic phenolic compounds that is a valuable raw material for generating a variety of soft nanomaterials such as nanotubes, nanofibers, gels and surfactants. These nanostructures may then serve as templates for the synthesis of additional nanomaterials. The wealth and diversity of cardanol-derived functional nanomaterials has urged us to present an article that will give readers a taste of a new class of cardanol-derived functional amphiphiles, along with their ability to generate hierarchical functional nanomaterials through non-covalent soft-chemical routes. In this concise review, we discuss selected examples of novel biobased surfactants, glycolipids, and polymers derived from cardanol, and their subsequent self-assembly into functional soft materials.