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The nitration of arenes in perfluorocarbon solvents
- Crampton, Michael R., Cropper, Emma L., Gibbons, Linda M., Millar, Ross W.
- Green chemistry 2002 v.4 no.3 pp. 275-278
- bulking agents, chlorobenzene, green chemistry, nitric acid, nitrogen, organochlorine compounds, perfluorocarbons, phenol, solvents, temperature, toluene, wastes
- Perfluorocarbons have been used effectively as solvents and bulking agents in the reactions of toluene, benzene, phenol, benzyl chloride and chlorobenzene with nitric acid or dinitrogen pentoxide to yield highly nitrated products. Reactions are carried out in a single stage, at lower temperatures, and producing smaller amounts of waste acid than in traditional processes.