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High resolution vehicular PM10 emissions over megacity Delhi: Relative contributions of exhaust and non-exhaust sources

Singh, Vikas, Biswal, Akash, Kesarkar, Amit P., Mor, Suman, Ravindra, Khaiwal
The Science of the total environment 2020 v.699 pp. 134273
air, air pollution, cities, developing countries, dust, gasoline, particulate emissions, particulates, pollution control, risk, roads, tires, traffic, India
Exposure to particulate matter (PM) from traffic can cause adverse health risks. Recent studies project an increase in non-exhaust emissions in the future despite a reduction in exhaust emissions. While there is a lot of research on exhaust emissions, the challenges remain to quantify non-exhaust emissions, especially in developing countries. In this work, an approach has been developed, and on-road vehicular non-exhaust PM emissions are estimated due to brake wear, tyre wear, road wear and resuspension, at very high resolution (100 m2) over an Indian megacity Delhi. Further, the relative contribution of non-exhaust emissions to the total vehicular emission was also calculated. The total PM10 emissions in megacity Delhi were 31.5 Gg/year, which is mainly dominated by the non-exhaust sources. The non-exhaust emissions were found to be six times (86%) of the exhaust emission (14%). The highest contribution to the total vehicular PM emission comes from the cars (34%) followed by buses (23%) and heavy commercial vehicles (HCVs, 17%), which is dominated by resuspension of dust. Cars and buses contribute less to exhaust emissions and more to non-exhaust emissions. Majors roads are the largest contributors to the total emissions in Delhi. The emissions from HCVs, diesel cars along with the other diesel vehicles result in diesel vehicles contributing more than the petrol vehicles to both exhaust and non-exhaust emissions. As India target to reduce PM pollution under the national clean air program, the current study will be useful to plan a suitable intervention to mitigate air pollution and associated health impacts.