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Protective effects induced by alcoholic Phlomis fruticosa and Phlomis herba‐venti extracts in isolated rat colon: Focus on antioxidant, anti‐inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities in vitro

Ferrante, Claudio, Recinella, Lucia, Ronci, Maurizio, Orlando, Giustino, Di Simone, Simonetta, Brunetti, Luigi, Chiavaroli, Annalisa, Leone, Sheila, Politi, Matteo, Tirillini, Bruno, Angelini, Paola, Covino, Stefano, Venanzoni, Roberto, Vladimir‐Knežević, Sanda, Menghini, Luigi
Phytotherapy research 2019 v.33 no.9 pp. 2387-2400
Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Escherichia coli, Phlomis fruticosa, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, antimicrobial properties, beverages, biomarkers, colitis, colon, essential oils, fungi, lactate dehydrogenase, leaf extracts, lipopolysaccharides, malondialdehyde, nitrites, protective effect, rats, serotonin, signs and symptoms (animals and humans)
Phlomis fruticosa L. and P. herba‐venti are species belonging to the Lamiaceae family, which have been traditionally used to prepare tonic and digestive drinks. Multiple studies also demonstrated the inhibitory effects of P. fruticosa extracts and essential oil against oxidative/proinflammatory pathways and bacterial strains deeply involved in ulcerative colitis. Considering these findings, the present study evaluated the effects of alcoholic P. fruticosa and P. herba‐venti leaf extracts in isolated rat colon challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an ex vivo experimental paradigm of ulcerative colitis. In this context, we assayed colon levels of pro‐oxidant and proinflammatory biomarkers, including nitrites, malondialdehyde (MDA), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and serotonin (5‐HT). Additionally, the extracts have been tested in order to evaluate possible inhibitory effects on specific bacterial and fungal strains involved in ulcerative colitis. Alcoholic P. fruticosa and P. herba‐venti extracts were able to blunt LPS‐induced nitrite, MDA, 5‐HT, and LDH levels in isolated rat colon. The same extracts also inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. In conclusion, our findings show a potential role exerted by alcoholic P. fruticosa and P. herba‐venti in managing the clinical symptoms related to ulcerative colitis.