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Structural requirements of synthetic and natural product lipo-chitin oligosaccharides for induction of nodule primordia on Glycine soja

Stokkermans, T.J.W., Ikeshita, S., Cohn, J., Carlson, R.W., Stacey, G., Ogawa, T., Peters, N.K.
Plant physiology 1995 v.108 no.4 pp. 1587-1595
N-acetylglucosamine, chemical composition, deformation, chemical reactions, Bradyrhizobium, root nodules, synthesis, root hairs, structure-activity relationships, Rhizobium, nodulation, Glycine soja, oligosaccharides, ultrastructure, chitin
Rhizobia synthesize a class of lipo-chitin oligosaccharides that induce root hair deformation and induce the initiation of nodule structures on legume roots. These lipo-chitin oligosaccharides are tetra- and penta-lipo-oligosaccharides of N-acetylglucosamine with an acyl substitution on the nonreducing end and are commonly known as Nod factors. In this study, we demonstrate that synthetic analogs of natural product Nod factors have the same biological activities. To determine structure-activity relationships, a collection of synthetic and natural product lipo-chitin oligosaccharides was assayed on Glycine soja. All biologically active lipo-chitin oligosaccharides induced both root hair deformation and nodule initiations on G. soja. The most active lipo-chitin oligosaccharides deformed root hairs at 10(-15) M and induced nodules at 1 ng of lipo-chitin oligosaccharide per spot inoculation. Plant responses demonstrate an interdependence of backbone length and the presence of substitutions on the reducing end. Lipo-chitin oligosaccharides containing four N-acetylglucosamine residues were active only without a reducing end modification, whereas lipo-chitin oligosaccharides containing five N-acetylglucosamine residues were active only with reducing end modification. The plant thus recognizes lipo-chitin oligosaccharides without reducing end substitutions despite the importance of these modifications for host range.