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Hydroxycinnamoyltransferases involved in the accumulation of caffeic acid esters in gametophytes and sporophytes of Equisetum arvense

Hohlfeld, M., Veit, M., Strack, D.
Plant physiology 1996 v.111 no.4 pp. 1153-1159
biosynthesis, caffeic acid, molecular weight, developmental stages, biochemical pathways, Equisetum arvense, pH, esters, kinetics, enzyme activity, acyltransferases
Four hydroxycinnamoyltransferases from Equisetum arvense L. were studied that catalyze the formation of mono-O-caffeoyl-meso-tartrate, di-O-caffeoyl-meso-tartrate, 5-O-caffeoylshikimate (dactylifrate), and 5-O-caffeoylquinate (chlorogenate). The enzymes were classified as coenzyme A (CoA)-ester-dependent acyltransferases (EC 2.3.1), i.e. hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:meso-tartrate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (CTT), hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:caffeoyl-meso-tartrate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (CCT), hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (CST), and hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:quinate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase. The CTT, CCT, and CST were partially purified and separated from E. arvense gametophytes by hydrophobic interaction chromatography on Fractogel TSK Butyl-650 followed by molecular exclusion on fast protein liquid chromatography-Superdex-75 with 87-, 62-, and 130-fold enrichments and 12, 8, and 11% yields, respectively. The enzyme activities obtained with caffeoyl-CoA were 95 (CTT), 74 (CCT), and 200 microkat (CST) kg-1 protein. The apparent native relative molecular weight values were found to be approximately 45,000 (CTT), 52,000 (CCT), and 50,000 (CST). Each enzyme showed highest activities at pH 7.5, the CCT and CST in Tris-HCl (1.2 and 1.0 M) and the CTT in imidazole-HCl (1.25 M). Enzyme activities were stimulated more than 3-fold by 100 mM ascorbate. The apparent energies of activation (kilojoules mol-1) were calculated to be 56 (CTT), 69 (CST), and 76 (CCT). The enzymes accepted cinnamoyl-CoA and various hydroxycinnamoyl-CoAs. The time course of the transferase activities along with that of a fourth one, hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:quinate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase, and the pattern of product accumulation were determined during a 1-year growth period of the E. arvense sporophytes.