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Photosystem II excitation pressure and development of resistance to photoinhibition. II. Adjustment of photosynthetic capacity in winter wheat and winter rye

Gray, G.R., Savitch, L.V., Ivanov, A.G., Huner, N.P.A.
Plant physiology 1996 v.110 no.1 pp. 61-71
Triticum aestivum, winter wheat, Secale cereale, photosystem II, photoinhibition, solar radiation, dose response, temperature, net assimilation rate, chlorophyll, hexosyltransferases, enzyme activity, lutein, cultivars, genetic variation, light harvesting complex, chemical constituents of plants
Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Monopol), spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Katepwa), and winter rye (Secale cereale L. cv Musketeer) grown at 5 degrees C and moderate irradiance (250 micromoles m-2 s-1) (5/250) exhibit an increased tolerance to photoinhibition at low temperature in comparison to plants grown at 20 degrees C and 250 micromoles m-2 s-1 (20/250). However, 5/250 plants exhibited a higher photosystem II (PSII) excitation pressure (0.32-0.63) than 20/250 plants (0.18-0.21), measured as 1 - qp, the coefficient of photochemical quenching. Plants grown at 20 degrees C and a high irradiance (800 micromoles m-2 s-1) (20/800) also exhibited a high PSII excitation pressure (0.32-0.48). Similarly, plants grown at 20/800 exhibited a comparable tolerance to photoinhibition relative to plants grown at 5/250. In contrast to a recent report for Chlorella vulgaris (D.P. Maxwell, S. Falk, N.P.A. Huner [1995] Plant Physiol 107: 687-694), this tolerance to photoinhibition occurs in winter rye with minimal adjustment to polypeptides of the PSII light-harvesting complex, chlorophyll a/b ratios, or xanthophyll cycle carotenoids. However, Monopol winter wheat exhibited a 2.5-fold stimulation of sucrose-phosphate synthase activity upon growth at 5/250, in comparison to Katepwa spring wheat. We demonstrate that low-temperature-induced tolerance to photoinhibition is not a low-temperature-growth effect per se but, instead, reflects increased photosynthetic capacity in response to elevated PSII excitation pressure, which may be modulated by either temperature or irradiance.