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Efficient removal of Cd²⁺ by dialdehyde phenylhydrazine starch from aqueous solution

Wang, Rou, Dong, Zheng-Ping, Wang, Ren-Qi, Tian, Xin, Li, Chun-Yang, Li, Rong
RSC advances 2013 v.3 no.43 pp. 20480-20487
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, adsorbents, adsorption, aqueous solutions, cadmium, heat production, kinetics, metal ions, models, pH, scanning electron microscopy, sorption isotherms, starch, temperature
Three similar adsorbents were prepared via the conjugation of o-phenylenediamine (PDA), m-phenylenediamine (MPA) and phenylhydrazine (PH) with dialdehyde starch (DAS) and designated as DASPDA, DASMPA, DASPH, respectively. The adsorption properties of the three adsorbents toward metal ions were determined, and the results indicated that DASPH had a good adsorbability to Cd²⁺ among different metal ions. The DASPH was characterized by elemental analysis, BET, FT-IR spectra and SEM. FT-IR of DASPH revealed the incorporation of the CN group (1601.1 cm⁻¹) and the disappearance of the CO (carbonyl) group (1733.4 cm⁻¹). DASPHs with different degrees of substitution (0.48, 0.72 and 0.86) of phenylhydrazine were prepared and their adsorption properties for Cd²⁺ from aqueous solution were investigated. Adsorption of Cd²⁺ towards DASPH was optimized by pH, contact time, initial Cd²⁺ concentration and temperature. The adsorption capacity increased with the increasing DS (degree of substitution) of the DASPH, and reached 4.021, 4.034 and 4.163 mmol g⁻¹, respectively, for DASPH₁, DASPH₂ and DASPH₃. The adsorption equilibrium data were correlated well with the Freundlich isotherm model. The present adsorption system can be described more favorably by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Moreover, lower temperature was preferable for the process as it was exothermic.