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Freeze-drying synthesis, characterization and in vitro bioactivity of chitosan/graphene oxide/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite

Mohandes, F., Salavati-Niasari, M.
RSC advances 2014 v.4 no.49 pp. 25993-26001
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, bioactive properties, body fluids, calcium, chemical composition, chitosan, freeze drying, graphene oxide, hydroxyapatite, ions, monitoring, nanocomposites, nanoparticles, scanning electron microscopy, schiff bases, soaking, transmission electron microscopy
Polycrystalline and dispersed hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanoparticles were successfully prepared via a simple precipitation method with the aid of a new capping agent based on Schiff base compounds. After that, a composite of chitosan (CT), graphene oxide (GO) and HAP nanoparticles was synthesized by a freeze-drying method. The as-produced Schiff base, HAP nanoparticles, and CT/GO/HAP nanocomposite were analysed by several techniques including FTIR, SEM, HR-TEM, and XRD. In addition, the in vitro bioactivity of HAP nanoparticles and the CT/GO/HAP nanocomposite was evaluated by soaking them in simulated body fluid (SBF). By monitoring the changes of chemical composition of the SBF solutions, it was concluded that more Ca and P ions were released from the CT/GO/HAP nanocomposite compared to the pure HAP nanoparticles, indicating a high bioactivity of the nanocomposite. The SEM images showed that the formation and growth of apatite on the surfaces of the products increased after immersion for 14 days in SBF.