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Penicillium expansum lipase-coated magnetic Fe₃O₄–polymer hybrid hollow nanoparticles: a highly recoverable and magnetically separable catalyst for the synthesis of 1,3-dibutylurea

Liu, Jun, Wang, Wenjing, Liu, Huiwen, Zhou, Yaoliang, Zhang, Haibo, Zhou, Xiaohai
RSC advances 2014 v.4 no.49 pp. 25983-25992
Penicillium expansum, butylamine, carbonates, carboxylic ester hydrolases, catalysts, catalytic activity, epoxides, ethylene, magnetic materials, magnetism, moieties, nanoparticles, nanospheres, solvents
Herein, amino-epoxy supports were innovatively imported onto magnetic nanoparticles (Fe₃O₄–polymer hybrid nanospheres) for immobilizing enzymes. This new support has a coating layer with dual functional groups (epoxy and amino-epoxy). Consequently, this support has great anionic exchange power and a high number of epoxy groups. The acquired immobilized Penicillium expansum lipase in combination with this heterofunctional support represents a novel class of heterogeneous catalyst towards the synthesis of 1,3-dibutylurea from ethylene carbonate and butylamine, which has not been very commonly catalyzed by enzymes. After optimization of the reaction conditions, the yield of 1,3-dibutylurea was 77% under solvent free conditions at 60 °C. Moreover, after completion of reaction, the catalyst was simply recovered by an external conventional magnet and recycled without significant loss in the catalytic activity (up to ten cycles).