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Influence of salicylic acid on H2O2 production, oxidative stress, and H2O2-metabolizing enzymes. Salicylic acid-mediated oxidative damage requires H2O2

Rao, M.V., Paliyath, G., Ormrod, D.P., Murr, D.P., Watkins, C.B.
Plant physiology 1997 v.115 no.1 pp. 137-149
Arabidopsis thaliana, leaves, oxidation, phytotoxicity, cell membranes, hydrogen peroxide, metabolism, biosynthesis, chemical reactions, biochemical pathways, lipid peroxidation, salicylic acid, dose response, protein content, chlorophyll, carotenes, copper, zinc, superoxide dismutase, catalase, enzyme activity, ascorbic acid, peroxidase, thiourea, stress response
We investigated how salicylic acid (SA) enhances H2O2 and the relative significance of SA-enhanced H2O2 in Arabidopsis thaliana. SA treatments enhanced H2O2 production, lipid peroxidation, and oxidative damage to proteins, and resulted in the formation of chlorophyll and carotene isomers. SA-enhanced H2O2 levels were related to increased activities of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase and were independent of changes in catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities. Prolonging SA treatments inactivated catalase and ascorbate peroxidase and resulted in phytotoxic symptoms, suggesting that inactivation of H2O2-degrading enzymes serves as an indicator of hypersensitive cell death. Treatment of leaves with H2O2 alone failed to invoke SA-mediated events. Although leaves treated with H2O2 accumulated in vivo H2O2 by 2-fold compared with leaves treated with SA, the damage to membranes and proteins was significantly less, indicating that SA can cause greater damage than H2O2. However, pretreatment of leaves with dimethylthiourea, a trap for H2O2, reduced SA-induced lipid peroxidation, indicating that SA requires H2O2 to initiate oxidative damage. The relative significance of the interaction among SA, H2O2 and H2O2-metabolizing enzymes with oxidative damage and cell death is discussed.