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Environmental Stability Study of Soybeans with Modified Carbohydrate Profiles in Maturity Groups 0 to V

Hyun Jo, Aaron J. Lorenz, Katy Martin Rainey, J. Grover Shannon, Pengyin Chen, Kristin D. Bilyeu
Crop science 2019 v.59 no.4 pp. 1531-1543
Glycine max, alleles, antinutritional factors, breeding lines, carbohydrate content, cultivars, energy content, environmental factors, galactosyltransferases, genotype, maturity groups, nutritive value, raffinose, seed characteristics, seed quality, soybean meal, soybeans, stachyose, sucrose
Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is an important crop in the United States that is processed into two main products: a vegetable oil and a high‐protein meal used in livestock rations. Soybean cultivar development involves the incorporation of new traits that enhance value for the producer, processor, or end user. Soybean varieties that have seed composition characteristics that improve the value of the meal while still allowing high yields are desirable. The raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFO) are antinutritional carbohydrates that reduce the nutritional energy of soybean meal, whereas sucrose can be considered nutritionally beneficial in soybean meal. The objective of this study was to expand the understanding of the environmental stability of the carbohydrate profiles for soybean lines containing different allele combinations of two key raffinose synthase (RS2 and RS3) genes, as well as targeted maturity gene combinations in a range of US soybean production environments. The results indicated that soybean genotypes with combinations of variant alleles of the RS2 and RS3 genes, as well as maturity genes appropriate for their targeted environment, produced characteristic carbohydrate profiles. Environmental factors did have an effect on carbohydrate components, particularly for sucrose. None of the genotype classes was stable for sucrose, although most of the variant RS2 genotypes accumulated at least 7% sucrose over the studied environments. In addition, five of the six genotype classes were stable for stachyose. The results establish the genotype classes with rs2W331− alleles suitable to develop soybean cultivars in broad maturity group backgrounds that have an enhanced energy meal trait.