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Differential Adaptation of CIMMYT Bread Wheat to Global High Temperature Environments

Lillemo, M., van Ginkel, M., Trethowan, R. M., Hernandez, E., Crossa, J.
Crop science 2005 v.45 no.6 pp. 2443-2453
Triticum aestivum, breeding programs, cluster analysis, developmental stages, genotype, genotype-environment interaction, grain yield, heat stress, models, planting date, relative humidity, temperature, wheat, Mexico, Pakistan
A good understanding of the target environment and the extent of genotype × environment (G × E) interaction is essential for all cereal breeding programs. Differential adaptation of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to various heat-stressed environments around the world was analyzed by cumulative cluster analysis of locations and genotypes in 9 yr of CIMMYT's High Temperature Wheat Yield Trial (HTWYT). The grouping pattern of yield-testing environments could largely be explained by the temperature at different growth stages and relative humidity at booting. A clear distinction was observed between sites with heat stress and more temperate locations, and the heat-stressed environments could be grouped into sites experiencing high temperature throughout the season and sites with more specific terminal heat stress. In addition, dry and humid heat-stressed locations tended to differentiate. The ability of individual locations to predict yield in different heat-stressed environments was studied by the shifted multiplicative model (SHMM) site clustering method, and identified locations like Tandojam (Pakistan), which associated well with both heat-stressed and temperate environments. The good ability of the January planting date in Ciudad Obregon (Mexico) to predict yield performance in many heat-stressed environments was also confirmed. Genotypes grouped according to their relative performance in different locations, and specific adaptation to the various types of heat-stressed environments was apparent. However, a subset of genotypes was identified that showed stable, and high yield across all types of environments, both heat-stressed and temperate.