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Induction of defense-related responses in Cf9 tomato cells by the AVR9 elicitor peptide of Cladosporium fulvum is developmentally regulated
- Honee, G., Buitink, J., Jabs, T., Kloe, J. de., Sijbolts, F., Apotheker, M., Weide, R., Sijen, T., Stuiver, M., Wit, P.J.G.M. de.
- Plant physiology 1998 v.117 no.3 pp. 809-820
- Solanum lycopersicum var. lycopersicum, Cladosporium, plant pathogenic fungi, disease resistance, genes, gene expression, oxidation, cell suspension culture, callus, transgenic plants, histochemistry, developmental stages, plant morphology, plant anatomy, pathogenesis-related proteins, ion exchange
- The AVR9 elicitor from the fungal pathogen Cladosporium fulvum induces defense-related responses, including cell death, specifically in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants that carry the Cf-9 resistance gene. To study biochemical mechanisms of resistance in detail, suspension cultures of tomato cells that carry the Cf-9 resistance gene were initiated. Treatment of cells with various elicitors, except AVR9, induced an oxidative burst, ion fluxes, and expression of defense-related genes. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Cf9 tomato leaf discs with Avr9-containing constructs resulted efficiently in transgenic callus formation. Although transgenic callus tissue showed normal regeneration capacity, transgenic plants expressing both the Cf-9 and the Avr9 genes were never obtained. Transgenic F, seedlings that were generated from crosses between tomato plants expressing the Avr9 gene and wild-type Cf9 plants died within a few weeks. However, callus cultures that were initiated on cotyledons from these seedlings could be maintained for at least 3 months and developed similarly to callus cultures that contained only the Cf-9 or the Avr9 gene. It is concluded, therefore, that induction of defense responses in Cf9 tomato cells by the AVR9 elicitor is developmentally regulated and is absent in callus tissue and cell-suspension cultures, which consists of undifferentiated cells. These results are significant for the use of suspension-cultured cells to investigate signal transduction cascades.