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Antibiotics and antidepressants occurrence in surface waters and sediments collected in the north of Portugal

Fernandes, Maria João, Paíga, Paula, Silva, Ana, Llaguno, Carmen Pérez, Carvalho, Manuela, Vázquez, Felipe Macías, Delerue-Matos, Cristina
Chemosphere 2019
antidepressants, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, detection limit, diazepam, liquid chromatography, monitoring, moxifloxacin, ofloxacin, pollution, river water, rivers, sediments, solid phase extraction, surface water, trimethoprim, Portugal
To our knowledge, this is the first study in Portugal for the analysis of both antibiotics and psychiatric drugs in river waters from Douro and Leça rivers and its sediments. Samples were extracted using solid phase extraction and QuEChERS procedures and the analysis was performed using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.Higher number of pharmaceuticals and higher concentrations were found in the Leça river for the two matrices under study. The highest detection frequency for the twenty-seven pharmaceuticals was observed for fluoxetine with 83.3% in both matrices. None of the studied antibiotics were detected in water collected in the Douro river however six antibiotics (azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, moxifloxacin, ofloxacin, and trimethoprim) were found in the Leça river. Further, the analysis of sediments exhibits the occurrence of sulfamethoxypyridazine in the Douro river and azithromycin in the Leça river. The highest concentration was observed in Leça river for azithromycin in the river water (2819 ng/L) and sediments (43.2 ng/g). Carbamazepine, citalopram, fluoxetine, sertraline, trazodone, and venlafaxine were the psychiatric drugs detected in river waters and sediments with more diazepam as water river contamination. Concentrations ranged from <method detection limit (MDL)) to 2.0 ng/L (river waters) and <MDL to 0.251 ng/g (sediments) in Douro river and between < MDL to 354 ng/L (river waters) and <MDL to 6.35 ng/g (sediments) in Leça river. To identify the possible sources of pollution more monitoring studies should be performed along the studied rivers.