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Response of submerged macrophytes and leaf biofilms to the decline phase of Microcystis aeruginosa: Antioxidant response, ultrastructure, microbial properties, and potential mechanism

Li, Qi, Gu, Peng, Zhang, Hao, Luo, Xin, Zhang, Jibiao, Zheng, Zheng
The Science of the total environment 2020 v.699 pp. 134325
Microcystis aeruginosa, ammonium nitrogen, antioxidant activity, aquatic environment, biofilm, glutathione transferase, granules, lactones, leaves, malondialdehyde, organelles, periphyton, peroxidase, polymers, polysaccharides, quorum sensing, risk, submerged aquatic plants, superoxide dismutase, ultrastructure
Decaying cyanobacterial blooms carry a potential risk for submerged macrophyte and periphyton biofilms in aquatic environments. This study comprehensively studied the responses in growth, oxidative response, detoxification pathway, and ultrastructure characteristics of aquatic plants to Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa) exudates and extracts released during the decline phase. Particular emphasis was placed on the variation of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and quorum-sensing signaling molecules. The results showed that superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase were significantly induced as antioxidant response, and the malondialdehyde content increased. Increased content of MC-LR (1.129 μg L−1) and NH4+-N (1.35 mg L−1) were found in the decline phase of M. aeruginosa, which played a vital role in the damage to submerged plants. In addition, a change in the amount of osmiophilic granules and a variation of organelles and membranes was observed. A broad distribution of α-d-glucopyranose polysaccharides was dominant and aggregated into clusters in biofilm EPS in response to exposure to decaying M. aeruginosa. Furthermore, exposure to exudates and extracts changed the abundance and structure of the microbial biofilm community. Increased contents of N-acylated-L-homoserine lactone signal molecule might result in a variation of biofilm EPS production in response to decaying M. aeruginosa. These results expand the understanding of how submerged macrophyte and periphyton biofilms respond to environmental stress caused by exudates and extracts of decaying M. aeruginosa.