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Effects of supplementation of citrulline and Lactobacillus helveticus ASCC 511 on intestinal epithelial cell integrity

Ho, Sze Wing, El-Nezami, Hani, Shah, Nagendra P.
Journal of functional foods 2020 v.64 pp. 103571
Lactobacillus helveticus, Western blotting, adhesion, arginine, arginine deiminase, cell growth, citrulline, electrical resistance, energy, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, enteroinvasive Escherichia coli, epithelial cells, intestinal mucosa, nitric oxide, protective effect, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, synergism, tight junctions
Citrulline is a precursor of arginine and is believed to have the same beneficial effects as arginine. Lactobacillus helveticus ASCC 511 (LH511) utilizes arginine to produce extra energy for cell growth via arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway. Supplementation of both citrulline and LH511 is considered to be beneficial to intestinal tract. LH511 + Cit-2 mM was tested with IPEC-J2 cells to determine (i) the anti-adhesion effect against pathogenic infection (ii) effect on cell integrity by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and (iii) effect on tight junction (TJ)-proteins expression by qPCR and western-blot analyses. LH511 + Cit-2 mM exhibited a protective effect against adhesion of enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) and enteroinvasive (EIEC) Escherichia coli; it stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production, improved TEER and stimulated TJ-proteins expression. LH511 + Cit-2 mM showed better effects than that with arginine and citrulline alone. This study suggests supplementation of citrulline with LH511 has a synergistic effect and it might be a potential supplement for enhancing the health of the intestine.