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Glycated Beef Protein Hydrolysates as Sources of Bitter Taste Modifiers

Zhang, Chunlei, Alashi, Adeola M., Singh, Nisha, Chelikani, Prashen, Aluko, Rotimi E.
Nutrients 2019 v.11 no.9
advanced glycation end products, beef, bitterness, calcium, chymotrypsin, consumer acceptance, electronic tongue, food industry, glucose, glycation, humans, hydrolysates, peptides, protein hydrolysates, quinine, subtilisin, taste receptors
Being averse to bitter taste is a common phenomenon for humans and other animals, which requires the pharmaceutical and food industries to source compounds that can block bitterness intensity and increase consumer acceptability. In this work, beef protein alcalase hydrolysates (BPAH) and chymotrypsin hydrolysates (BPCH) were reacted with glucose to initiate Maillard reactions that led to the formation of glycated or advanced glycation end products (AGEs), BPAH-AGEs and BPCH-AGEs, respectively. The degree of glycation was higher for the BPAH-AGEs (47&ndash;55%) than the BPCH-AGEs (30&ndash;38%). Analysis by an electronic tongue instrument showed that BPAH-AGEs and BPCH-AGEs had bitterness scores that were significantly (p < 0.05) less than quinine. The addition of BPAH-AGEs or BPCH-AGEs to quinine led to significant (p < 0.05) reductions (up to 38%) in bitterness intensity of quinine. The use of 3% hydrolysate to react with glucose yielded glycated peptides with a stronger ability to reduce quinine bitterness than when 1% was used. Calcium release from HEK293T cells stably expressing the T2R4 human bitter taste receptor was significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated by BPAH-AGEs (up to 96%) and BPCH-AGEs (up to 92%) when compared to the BPAH (62%) and BPCH (3%) or quinine (0%). We concluded that BPAH-AGEs and BPCH-AGEs may be used as bitter taste blockers to formulate better tasting foods.