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PAH levels in a furniture-manufacturing city atmosphere

Caliskan, Burak, Kücük, Aleyna, Tasdemir, Yücel, Cindoruk, S. Sıddık
Chemosphere 2020 v.240 pp. 124757
air, air sampling, combustion, fuels, furniture, heat, industry, pollutants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, principal component analysis, risk, samplers, traffic, urban areas, wastes
In this study, in order to determine atmospheric PAH concentrations in Inegol/Turkey, ambient air samples were collected from two different sites representing industrial and uncontrolled furniture manufacturers regions. Sampling campaign took place between December 2017 and November 2018. Air samples were collected using high volume air samplers (HVAS) and PAH concentrations were determined in both gas and particulate phases. The mean of the atmospheric PAH concentrations obtained in the gas phase in the furniture workshops (FW) and industrial district (ID) regions were 697.82 ± 637 ng/m³ and 772.92 ± 864.23 ng/m³, respectively. The concentrations in the particulate phase in the regions were 413.52 ± 430.23 ng/m³ and 342.40 ± 527.48 ng/m³, respectively. The average total (gas + particlulate phases) concentration of ∑₁₆PAH determined in the site of FW was 1111.34 ± 1045.24 ng/m³ while that was 772.92 ± 864.23 ng/m³ in ID. These values are over the ambient levels reported for urban sites wherein big industries exist around the world. Additionally, the average of particle phase percentage was 30% because of nearby combustion sources. The determination of possible sources of PAHs in the regions was performed using principal component analysis (PCA). PCA results showed that the main sources of pollutants of the regions are intertwined (combustion, traffic, industries). However, the most effective source is thought to be uncontrolled combustion of furniture wastes as fuel for residential heating. Health risks for the citizens were calculated for both regions and were found not to be at high-class risk.