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Oleuropein-enriched chocolate by extra virgin olive oil blunts hyperglycaemia in diabetic patients: Results from a one-time 2-hour post-prandial cross over study
- Del Ben, Maria, Nocella, Cristina, Loffredo, Lorenzo, Bartimoccia, Simona, Cammisotto, Vittoria, Mancinella, Mirta, Angelico, Francesco, Valenti, Valentina, Cavarretta, Elena, Carnevale, Roberto, Violi, Francesco
- Clinical nutrition 2019
- blood glucose, chocolate, cross-over studies, extra-virgin olive oil, glucagon-like peptide 1, glucose, hyperglycemia, insulin, noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, oleuropein, patients, secretin
- Oleuropein, a component of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), reduces post-prandial glycemia with a mechanism counteracting oxidative stress-mediated incretin down-regulation. In this study we evaluated if the intake of an oleuropein-enriched chocolate could have positive effects on glycaemia and insulin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and healthy subjects (HS).Twenty-five consecutive T2DM patients and 20 HS were recruited. Participants were randomized to receive 40 g oleuropein-enriched chocolate by EVOO or 40 g control chocolate spread in a cross-over design. Serum glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1), and dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP4) were measured before and 2 h after chocolate intake.In T2DM, the pairwise comparisons showed that intake of oleuropein-enriched chocolate was associated with a significantly less increase of blood glucose compared to control; GLM analysis showed a significant difference for treatments with respect to glucose (p = 0.04), GLP1 (p < 0.001) and DPP-4 activity (p = 0.01).In HS, the pairwise comparisons showed that, after oleuropein-enriched chocolate intake, blood glucose concentration and DPP4 activity did not change; conversely a significant increase was observed for insulin and GLP1. After control chocolate intake, a significant increase for blood glucose, insulin levels and DPP4 activity were observed while GLP1 did not change.The study shows that using EVOO as source of oleuropein administration of 40 g oleuropein-enriched chocolate is associated with a modest increase or no change of glycemia in T2DM and HS respectively, via an incretin-mediated mechanism.