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Globe-Trotting Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus: Risk Factors for Arbovirus Pandemics

Lwande, Olivia Wesula, Obanda, Vincent, Lindström, Anders, Ahlm, Clas, Evander, Magnus, Näslund, Jonas, Bucht, Göran
Vector borne and zoonotic diseases 2020 v.20 no.2 pp. 71-81
Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Chikungunya virus, Dengue virus, Yellow fever virus, Zika virus, arboviruses, arthropods, chemical control, ecology, forests, geographical distribution, humans, pandemic, public health, reproduction, risk factors, urbanization, vector competence
Introduction: Two species of Aedes (Ae.) mosquitoes (Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus) are primary vectors for emerging arboviruses that are a significant threat to public health and economic burden worldwide. Distribution of these vectors and the associated arboviruses, such as dengue virus, chikungunya virus, yellow fever virus, and Zika virus, was for a long time restricted by geographical, ecological, and biological factors. Presently, arbovirus emergence and dispersion are more rapid and geographically widespread, largely due to expansion of the range for these two mosquitoes that have exploited the global transportation network, land perturbation, and failure to contain the mosquito population coupled with enhanced vector competence. Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus may also sustain transmission between humans without having to depend on their natural reservoir forest cycles due to arthropod adaptation to urbanization. Currently, there is no single strategy that is adequate to control these vectors, especially when managing arbovirus outbreaks. Objective: This review aimed at presenting the characteristics and abilities of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, which can drive a global public health risk, and suggests strategies for prevention and control. Methods: This review presents the geographic range, reproduction and ecology, vector competence, genetic evolution, and biological and chemical control of these two mosquito species and how they have changed and developed over time combined with factors that may drive pandemics and mitigation measures. Conclusion: We suggest that more efforts should be geared toward the development of a concerted multidisciplinary approach.