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Activation of phospholipases C and D is an early response to a cold exposure in Arabidopsis suspension cells

Ruelland, E., Cantrel, C., Gawer, M., Kader, J.C., Zachowski, A.
Plant physiology 2002 v.130 no.2 pp. 999-1007
fatty acids, diacylglycerol kinase, phosphatidylinositols, plant proteins, Arabidopsis thaliana, lanthanum, calcium, enzyme inhibitors, phospholipase C, phosphotransferases (phosphomutases), enzyme activity, cold, enzyme activation, plant stress, biosynthesis, stress response, cold stress, biochemical pathways, cell suspension culture, chemical constituents of plants, phospholipase D
The signaling events generated by a cold exposure are poorly known in plants. We were interested in checking the possible activation of enzymes of the phosphoinositide signaling pathway in response to a temperature drop. In Arabidopsis suspension cells labeled with 33PO4(3-), a cold treatment induces a rapid increase of phosphatidic acid (PtdOH) content. This production was due to the simultaneous activation of phospholipase C (through diacylglycerol kinase activity) and phospholipase D, as monitored by the production of inositol triphosphate and of transphosphatidylation product, respectively. Moreover, inhibitors of the phosphoinositide pathway and of diacylglycerol kinase reduced PtdOH production. Enzyme activation occurred immediately after cells were transferred to low temperature. The respective contribution of both kind of phospholipases in cold-induced production of PtdOH could be estimated. We created conditions where phospholipids were labeled with 33PO4(3-), but with ATP being nonradioactive. In such conditions, the apparition of radioactive PtdOH reflected PLD activity. Thus, we demonstrated that during a cold stress, phospholipase D activity accounted for 20% of PtdOH production. The analysis of composition in fatty acids of cold-produced PtdOH compared with that of different phospholipids confirmed that cold-induced PtdOH more likely derived mainly from phosphoinositides. The addition of chemical reagents modifying calcium availability inhibited the formation of PtdOH, showing that the cold-induced activation of phospholipase pathways is dependent on a calcium entry.