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Daily ambient temperature is associated with biomarkers of kidney injury in older Americans

Honda, Trenton, Manjourides, Justin, Suh, Helen
Environmental research 2019
Americans, acute kidney injury, adiponectin, ambient temperature, biomarkers, demographic statistics, health behavior, kidneys, medical history, men, models, neutrophils, regression analysis, renal function, risk factors, women, United States
Increases in ambient temperature have recently been associated with increased emergency department visits and hospital admissions for acute renal failure. However, potential biological mechanisms through which short-term ambient temperature affects kidney function are not known.We used multiple regression models to evaluate the association between 1- and 3-day average, ambient temperature levels and two biomarkers of kidney injury (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and adiponectin), among 3,377 individuals over 57 years of age enrolled in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Ambient temperature was estimated on a 6-km grid covering the conterminous United States using ambient temperature measurements obtained from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). NGAL and adiponectin levels were measured from whole blood collected for each participant. All health effect models were adjusted for a number of demographics, socioeconomic, health behavior, medical history variables, with non-linear exposure-response relationships examined using natural cubic splines.The relationship between 1- and 3-day average temperature and both NGAL and adiponectin levels was significant and non-linear, with largely null associations below 10 °C, and positive association for temperatures >10 °C. In fully adjusted, linear multiple regression models restricted to >10 °C, NGAL and adiponectin levels increased by 1.89% (95% CI: 0.77, 3.91) and 2.51% (95% CI: 1.34, 3.69), respectively, for a 1 °C increase in daily average temperature. Additionally, every 1 °C increase in temperature over 10 °C was associated with an 1.83% increased odds of having plasma NGAL levels consistent with acute kidney injury (>150 μg/L).In a cohort of older men and women in the United States, our study is the first to observe that short-term ambient temperature exposures were significantly associated with biomarkers of kidney injury. These associations suggest that ambient temperature exposures could be an important risk factor for renal pathology.