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Chemical composition and evaluation of the antinociceptive, antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of essential oil from Hymenaea cangaceira (Pinto, Mansano & Azevedo) native to Brazil: A natural medicine

Bruno Oliveira de Veras, Maria Betânia Melo de Oliveira, Fernanda Granja da Silva Oliveira, Yago Queiroz dos Santos, João Ricardhis Saturnino de Oliveira, Vera Lúcia de Menezes Lima, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz Navarro, Júlio César Ribeiro de Oliveira Farias de Aguiar, Jaciana dos Santos Aguiar, Krystyna Gorlach-Lira, Caio Rodrigo Dias de Assis, Márcia Vanusa da Silva, Ana Catarina de Souza Lopes
Journal of ethnopharmacology 2019 pp. -
2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, DNA damage, Gram-negative bacteria, Hymenaea, acetic acid, acute toxicity, analgesic effect, antagonists, antibacterial properties, antioxidant activity, atropine, chemical composition, erythrocytes, essential oils, formalin, free radicals, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, hemolysis, humans, hydrodistillation, indigenous species, industry, inflammation, mechanism of action, medicinal plants, mice, models, naloxone, oils, oral administration, oxidative stress, pain, plasmids, rheumatoid arthritis, sesquiterpenoids, superoxide anion, traditional medicine, Brazil
Hymenaea cangaceira Pinto, Mansano & Azevedo (Fabaceae) is a Brazilian medicinal plant widely known as “Jatobá”. In folk medicine, it is used to treat infections, respiratory problems, rheumatism, antitumoral, inflammation and pain, however, no activity has been scientifically validated.This study investigated chemical composition of essential oil from Hymenaea cangaceira (EOHc), antimicrobial, antinociceptive and antioxidant activities besides protection against DNA damage and hemolysis.The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation, and characterized by GC-MS and GC-FID. The evaluation of antimicrobial activity was performed by microdilution method. The evaluation of the antioxidant activity was performed using the radicals DPPH, ABTS, O2- and OH-, and the protection of DNA damage using plasmid pBR322. Different experimental models were used to evaluate the antinociceptive effect (acetic acid and formalin), and evaluate the mechanisms of action involved with pharmacological antagonists (naloxone, atropine and gibenclamide) in mice. The essential oil was evaluated for hemolysis on human erythrocytes.The extraction of EOHc showed a yield of 0.18% on a dry basis, presenting high content of hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes (79.04%), high antioxidant activity and protect DNA from damage, besides presenting antifungal and antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in vitro. It was found that the essential oil had no acute toxicity in mice up to 5000 mg/kg oral administration (o.a.), in addition to no hemolysis on human erythrocytes. The reduction of antinociceptive activity was 75%, with the opioid system as the mechanism of action.Our results validate the main activities by the traditional use attributed to H. cangaceira for antimicrobial and analgesic activity. In addition, the oil has a potent antioxidant activity, protecting the body against oxidative stress damage, adding new value to an endemic species not known to the industry.