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An updated phytoplankton check-list for the Helgoland Roads time series station with eleven new records of diatoms and dinoflagellates

Alexandra Kraberg, Ute Kieb, Silvia Peters, Karen Helen Wiltshire
Helgoland marine research 2019 v.73 no.1 pp. 9
Alexandrium, Bacillariophyceae, Chaetoceros, Dinophysis, ecosystems, metadata, phytoplankton, scanning electron microscopes, scanning electron microscopy, surveys, time series analysis, toxicity
The Helgoland Roads time series is one of the longest and most detailed time series in the world. It comprises daily phytoplankton counts accompanied by physico-chemical measurements. As such, it provides valuable long-term record of changes and their underlying causes in the phytoplankton community around Helgoland. This work provides an updated check-list of the phytoplankton species encountered at the Helgoland Roads LTER station with additional taxonomic assessments from live net samples and scanning electron microscope surveys. Since the last check-list was published 11 additional taxa have been recorded for the first time comprising 9 diatom and 2 dinoflagellate species. Of the 9 diatom species 3 were Chaetoceros species: Chaetoceros anastomosans, C. pseudocurvisetus and C. lorenzianus (the latter identified by their resting cysts) which were all first recognised in September 2009. The toxic dinoflagellate Dinophysis tripos, and the bipolar centric diatom Odontella longicruris both were first observed in September 2015. The latest new record is the potentially toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii, first recorded in August 2017. All of the first records (with the exception of Dinophysis tripos) were first observed in semi-quantitative surveys based on live samples and SEM demonstrating that adding less frequent but very detailed assessments can complement high frequency counts of fixed samples as long as these data of different origin are linked efficiently to the individual sampling event and all metadata including representative pictorial metadata are recorded in a consistent manner. In this manner the enhanced checklist serves as a baseline against which long-term changes in phytoplankton potentially related to ecosystem state can be addressed.