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Assessment of Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Non-transferrin Bound Iron After Oral Ferrous Sulfate and Iron-enriched Aspergillus Oryzae Supplementation in Women (P24-039-19)
- Bries, Amanda, Wang, Chong, Wels, Brian, Agbemafle, Isaac, Meier, Olivia, Hurrell, Richard, Reddy, Manju
- Current developments in nutrition 2019 v.3 no.Supplement_1
- Aspergillus oryzae, adverse effects, biomarkers, blood serum, compliance, constipation, cross-over studies, diarrhea, females, ferritin, ferrous sulfate, gastrointestinal system, headache, inflammation, iron, iron deficiency anemia, kidneys, liver, liver function, nausea, nutrient deficiencies, oxidative stress, placebos, questionnaires, renal function, transferrin, women
- Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a widespread nutritional deficiency. Iron supplementation with ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) is the most common strategy to treat IDA; however, the compliance with daily FeSO4 administration is poor, due to contraindicating side effects. Previously, we have reported that A. oryzae (Ultimine®; ULT) is a novel iron source. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the biochemical assessment, non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI) and commonly related gastrointestinal side effects to assess the safety of A. oryzae compared to FeSO4. Female participants (n = 16) with serum ferritin concentrations 40 µg/L were randomized to a double-blind, 9-wk cross-over study with a 3-wk placebo washout period between treatments. Oral iron supplements (65 mg Fe), FeSO₄ and ULT were administered for 21 consecutive days for each subject. Side effect questionnaires were collected 3d/wk over the 9-wk study period. Side effects and biochemical markers (nausea, heartburn, abdominal pain, fatigue, headache, diarrhea, constipation, oxidative stress and liver and kidney function) from iron supplementation were evaluated, along with serum iron, % transferrin saturation (TS) and NBTI 8 h curves. Serum iron, TS, and NTBI were all markedly higher with FeSO4 at each time-point from 2–8 hours (P < 0.001) compared to ULT, whereas NTBI was undetected. Among treatments, FeSO4 resulted in higher inflammation, though not statistically significant. Compliance based on returned pills was higher with ULT (97.3%) than placebo and FeSO4 (95.2% and 93.2%, respectively). Subjects taking FeSO4 reported abdominal discomfort 2% more than ULT, which was not significantly different. FeSO4 caused marginally higher incidence of combined nauseation, constipation and diarrhea when subjects were taking FeSO4 (P < 0.07). Iron status was maintained similarly by both oral iron supplements. Oxidative stress, inflammation, kidney and liver function markers were not elevated with ULT supplementation, suggesting safety of its consumption. Better compliance and less gastrointestinal related side effects were reported with ULT compared to FeSO₄, while maintaining normal iron status. Our data suggests ULT is a safe oral iron supplement for treatment of IDA. Cura Global Health, Inc.