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Dependence of welding fume particle toxicity on electrode type and current intensity assessed by microalgae growth inhibition test

Kirichenko, Konstantin, Zakharenko, Alexander, Pikula, Konstantin, Chaika, Vladimir, Markina, Zhanna, Orlova, Tatiana, Medvedev, Stanislav, Waissi, Greta, Kholodov, Aleksey, Tsatsakis, Aristidis, Golokhvast, Kirill
Environmental research 2019 v.179 pp. 108818
adverse effects, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, chemical composition, electrodes, flow cytometry, light microscopy, microalgae, nitrogen oxides, ozone, toxic substances, toxicity, wavelengths, welding
Welding fumes are a major source of metal oxide particles, ozone, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and many other toxic substances. Hazardous properties and the level of toxicity of welding fumes depend mostly on the welding electrode type and the welding regime parameters. The specific objective of this study was to evaluate the aquatic toxicity of metal welding fume particles in vivo on microalga Heterosigma akashiwo. The quantity and size of particles were measured by flow cytometry using a scattering laser light with a wavelength of 405 nm. The number of microalgae cells after 72 h and 7 days exposition with welding fume particle suspensions was evaluated by flow cytometry. Morphological changes of the microalga were observed by optical microscopy. The toxic effect was demonstrated as a significant reduction of cell density after exposure of microalgae to welding fume particles. The greatest impact on the growth of microalga was caused by particles with high rutile content. It was shown that the adverse effect of metal oxide particles depends more on the chemical composition of particles in welding fume while the number and dispersity of particles had no noticeable toxic influence on microalgae. The findings of this research confirm the fact that the toxicity of welding fume particles can be significantly reduced by using rutile-cellulose coated electrodes.