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Characterization of pharmaceuticals industrial effluent using GC–MS and FT-IR analyses and defining its toxicity

Kumari, Vineeta, Tripathi, A. K.
Applied water science 2019 v.9 no.8 pp. 185
Allium cepa, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, biochemical oxygen demand, cadmium, chemical oxygen demand, chromium, chromosome breakage, chromosome elimination, cobalt, copper, cytotoxicity, drugs, electrical conductivity, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, genotoxicity, heavy metals, industrial effluents, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, mitosis, mutagens, nickel, onions, pH, root growth, root tips, total dissolved solids, zinc
The physicochemical analysis of collected effluent sample for different parameters shown results as pH (pH 5.6 ± 0.11) slightly acidic, high conductivity (1563.34 ± 176 μs cm⁻¹), total dissolved solids (920.34 ± 137 mg L⁻¹), high BOD (7253.34 ± 1022 mg L⁻¹), and COD (756.67 ± 1124 mg L⁻¹) in the effluent sample. The results of heavy metals concentration are viz. as [Cu (1.98–2.56), Co (0.26–0.53), Cd (0.10–0.50), Ni (0.04–0.07), Pb (0.58–1.2), Mn (0.58–1.05), Cr (1.47–1.51), Zn (2.61–3.5), Fe (1.72–2.13), As (0.05–0.09), and Hg (0.003–0.006)]. Results revealed the higher concentration of BOD, COD, TDS, and conductivity and also the concentration of lead. Results of GC–MS also confirmed the high levels of organic pollutants in effluent. Further the effluent toxicity was evaluated by employing genotoxocity assays with the use of Allium cepa L. (onion) root tip cells. Genotoxicity measured mitotic index (MI) and chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in root tip cells obtained after treatment with effluent of 6.25, 12.5, and 25% concentration (v/v). The results of root growth test showed that inhibition of root growth occurred at effluent concentration ≥ 50% (v/v). The lowest MI was recorded (MI = 9.6%) in 25% of effluent concentration, showing a significant reduction in mitotic index compared with control which MI = 64.1%. Further, the chromosomal aberration was investigated in root tip cell after treating with different concentration ranges of effluent exhibiting various CA, viz. c-mitosis, chromosome loss, chromosome break, micronucleated cells, etc. The result suggests that the effluent contained toxic constituents, which imposed cytotoxic and genotoxic hazard.