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Effect of early neonatal development and delayed feeding post-hatch on jejunal and ileal calcium and phosphorus transporter genes expression in broiler chickens

Monika Proszkowiec-Weglarz, Lori L Schreier, Katarzyna B Miska, Roselina Angel, Stanislaw Kahl, Beverly Russell
Poultry science 2019 v.98 no.4 pp. 1861-1871
broiler chickens, broiler feeding, calcium, chicks, diet, farms, feed conversion, gene expression, genes, hatcheries, hatching, homeostasis, ileum, intestinal absorption, jejunum, messenger RNA, mineralization, minerals, mortality, neonatal development, phosphorus, poultry production, production technology, renal reabsorption, skeletal development, starch, tissue weight, transportation, transporters
Calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) are essential minerals involved in many biological processes including bone development and mineralization. Plasma concentration of both minerals is tightly regulated, and Ca and P homeostasis is maintained via intestinal absorption, bone storage and exchange, and renal reabsorption. In the current broiler production systems, chicks are deprived of food and water for up to 72 h due to uneven hatching, hatchery procedures, and transportation time to farms. Post-hatch (PH) feed delay results in lower body and organ weight, higher feed conversion ratio and mortality, and delayed PH growth and GIT development. Little is known about the effects of early neonatal development and delayed or immediate feeding PH on Ca and P transporters. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to characterize expression patterns of Ca and P transporter genes in small intestine during the first 2 wk PH in chickens fed immediately after hatch (FED) or subjected to 48 h delayed feeding (NOTFED). Expression of all Ca and P transporters in jejunum and ileum was significantly (P < 0.05) affected by age. Among Ca transporter genes, only mRNA expression of Calbidin D₂₈ₖ in jejunum and Ca sensing receptor (CaSR) in ileum were significantly (P < 0.05) affected by delay in feed access. For P transporter genes’ expression, only P transporter type III (PIT1) mRNA was significantly affected by age, delay in feed access, and their interaction (P < 0.05). In summary, we have shown, for the first time, early developmental changes of Ca and P transporter genes in broiler chickens. Results suggest that an increase in gene expression of some of the transporters corresponds with the switch from yolk to high starch diet. Overall, our results can be helpful in better understanding of Ca and P homeostasis in broilers.