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Physicochemical characterization of ‘Cerrado’ cashew (Anacardium othonianum Rizzini) fruits and pseudofruits

Oliveira, Valeria F, Silva, Fabiano G, Resende, Erika C, Pereira, Paulo S, de L e Silva, Fernando H, Egea, Mariana B
Journal of the science of food and agriculture 2019 v.99 no.14 pp. 6199-6208
Anacardium, brix, cluster analysis, color, epicatechin, fruits, hesperidin, morphometry, pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, Brazil
BACKGROUND: The Cerrado occupies 23% of Brazil. A. othonianum is a native Cerrado species that presents differently colored pseudofruits. This report describes the morphometric properties, physicochemical characterization, and phenolic and flavonoid compound compositions of 30 accessions of A. othonianum. RESULTS: The morphometric properties show that an average fruit had 21.97 mm length, 18.61 mm width, and 11.13 mm thickness, with 2.52 g mass. The pseudofruits had 28.84 mm apex width with 12.83 g of mass. The hue parameters of the pseudofruits were 18.67 ± 2.00 and 83.32 ± 1.97° (P < 0.05), reflecting their red to yellow color. The titratable acidity of the accessions was 0.91 ± 0.09 to 3.02 ± 0.02% (P < 0.05), soluble solid content was 9.60 ± 0.17 to 13.47 ± 0.38 °Brix (P < 0.05), and pH ranged from 2.83 ± 0.06 to 3.83 ± 0.06 (P < 0.05). Fourteen flavonoid compounds were identified. The most common compounds in the accessions were vitexin (93% of the accessions), hesperidin (57% of the accessions), epicatechin (34% of the accessions), and kaempferol‐3‐O‐glucoside (30% of the accessions). Cluster analysis generated four groups with the traits ΔE, °h, C, soluble solid content, titratable acidity, pH, total flavonoids, and their identified compounds. CONCLUSIONS: Although all accessions are A. othonianum, there the chemical composition and the physical characteristics of these fruits vary. This is the first report in the literature using wild accessions. Greater disclosure of the species characteristic is interesting because it can increase income for the local population. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry