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Multicenter biomonitoring of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in colostrum from China: Body burden profile and risk assessment
- Yin, Shanshan, Guo, Fangjie, Aamir, Muhammad, Liu, Yingxue, Tang, Mengling, Liu, Weiping
- Environmental research 2019 v.179 pp. 108828
- adverse effects, birth weight, body mass index, breast feeding, cities, colostrum, drinking water, environmental monitoring, fetal development, head circumference, lipids, maternal exposure, neonates, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, pregnancy, risk, risk assessment, toxicity, weight gain, xenobiotics, China
- Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were listed in the Stockholm Convention due to their persistent and toxic nature. In utero exposure to PBDEs might affect fetal development as it is sensitive when exposed to even low dose of xenobiotic substances during the pregnancy. In this study, a multi-centre human biomonitoring study of tri-to hexa-BDEs was conducted in three Chinese cities using 60 colostrum samples from local residents. The patterns and influencing factors, correlation with the birth outcome, and potential health risks during the breastfeeding of tri-to hexa-BDEs in the colostrum samples were assessed. The median concentration of tri-to hexa-BDEs was 9.1 (Interquartile range: 3.1–19.5) ng g−1 lipid weight, and BDE-153 contributed 68% of the detected PBDEs. The PBDE levels were mostly associated with maternal age and drinking water sources, while correlations with other factors including weight gain, BMI, parity and the number of aborted pregnancies was not significant. The level of BDE-28 was positively correlated with the birth weight, while the BDE-99 was positively correlated with the head circumference, using multilinear regression. For the total hazard quotients, 60% of the infants have an estimated value higher than 1, showed potential chronic hazard for future development and possible adverse health effects to the babies from the exposure to PBDE congeners. Alternative food source seems to have a lower risk for neonates than the colostrum, but the advantages of breastfeeding undoubtedly outweigh the risks and potential adverse health effects caused by environmental PBDEs and other xenobiotic chemical exposure.