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Deep eutectic solvent as an efficient modifier of low-cost adsorbent for the removal of pharmaceuticals and dye

Lawal, Isiaka A., Klink, Michael, Ndungu, Patrick
Environmental research 2019 v.179 pp. 108837
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Vitex doniana, X-ray diffraction, acetaminophen, adsorbents, adsorption, biomass, ciprofloxacin, dyes, kaolin, kinetics, models, pH, pollutants, scanning electron microscopy, solvents, sorption isotherms, thermogravimetry, wastes
Waste from biomass was used to prepare a low–cost biochar–clay hybrid adsorbent. The hybrid adsorbent was synthesised by combining Kaolin with biomass (Vitex doniana), thereafter, modified with Deep Eutectic Solvent (DES). The materials were characterised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), also, pHpzc of the materials were studied. The resultant adsorbents were used for both column and batch adsorption of organic pollutants; dye (Acid Blue 74; AB74) and pharmaceuticals (ciprofloxacin; CIP and acetaminophen; ACTE). Column adsorption capacity, effect of pollutant concentration and effect of flow rate were studied, also, the column was modelled using Thomas, Yoon-Nelson and Adams-Bohart model. Furthermore, batch adsorption experiments were performed, effect of change in pH, time, dose and concentration were studied. Batch adsorption data were fitted with isotherm and kinetic models. The experiment showed tremendous increase in adsorption capacity when the hybrid adsorbent (HYD) was modified with DES (HYD–DES). Acid Blue 74 on HYD–DES has the highest column sorption capacity followed by ciprofloxacin and acetaminophen. Adsorption was favoured at pH range of 2–10 for both AB74 and ACTE as there is no significant changes in the % removal performance, while adsorption was best at pH 6 and above for CIP. AB74 and CIP are best described by Langmuir isotherm, whereas ACTE adsorption was best explained by Freundlich isotherm equilibrium. The DES modified HYD has shown it can be effectively utilised as possible adsorbent for adsorbing organic dyes and pharmaceuticals.