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Comparative toxicity, growth inhibitory and biochemical effects of terpenes and phenylpropenes on Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.)

Al-Nagar, Nagwa M.A., Abou-Taleb, Hamdy K., Shawir, Mohamed S., Abdelgaleil, Samir A.M.
Journal of Asia-Pacific entomology 2020 v.23 no.1 pp. 67-75
Spodoptera littoralis, acetylcholinesterase, adenosinetriphosphatase, air, alpha-pinene, botanical insecticides, cineole, enzyme inhibition, fumigants, growth retardation, inhibitory concentration 50, insect control, insect larvae, insecticidal properties, instars, lethal concentration 50, lethal dose 50, p-cymene, sesquiterpenoids, topical application, toxic substances
Eleven monoterpenes, phenylpropenes and sesquiterpenes were evaluated for their insecticidal and growth inhibitory activities against the second and fourth larval instars of Spodoptera littoralis. Among the tested compounds, 1,8-cineole revealed the highest fumigant toxicity against the 2nd and 4th larval instars with LC₅₀ values of 2.32 and 3.13 mg/L air, respectively. The monoterpenes, p-cymene, α-terpinene, (−)α-pinene and (−)-carvone were highly toxic to both larval stages as their LC₅₀ values ranged between 7.35 and 13.79 mg/L air against 2nd larval instar and between 14.66 and 32.02 mg/L air against 4th larval instar. In topical application assay against the 4th larval instar, (−)-carvone (LD₅₀ = 0.15 mg/larva) and cuminaldehyde (LD₅₀ = 0.27 mg/larva) were the most potent contact toxicants. In residual film assay, trans-cinnamaldehyde, (−)-citronellal and p-cymene showed the highest insecticidal activity against the 2nd larval instar, while α-terpinene and (−)-carvone were most effective compounds against the 4th larval instar. Moreover, the tested compounds caused strong growth reduction of both larval stages with growth inhibition higher than 80% in the 2nd larval instar and higher than 70% in the 4th larval instar. On the other hand, (−)-carvone, cuminaldehyde and (Z,E)-nerolidol showed pronounced inhibitory effects on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) activity of S. littoralis larvae. Cuminaldehyde (IC₅₀ = 1.04 mM) and (Z,E)-nerolidol (IC₅₀ = 0.02 mM) caused the highest inhibition of AChE and ATPases, respectively. Taken together, the results indicate that monoterpenes, phenylpropenes and phenylpropenes could be used to develop new botanical insecticides for S. littoralis management.