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Determination of endogenous hormones, sugars and mineral nutrition levels during the induction, initiation and differentiation stage and their effects on flower formation in olive
- Ulger, S., Sonmez, S., Karkacier, M., Ertoy, N., Akdesir, O., Aksu, M.
- Plant growth regulation 2004 v.42 no.1 pp. 89-95
- Olea europaea, olives, flowering, fruiting, flowers, developmental stages, leaves, internodes, fruits (plant anatomy), chemical constituents of plants, abscisic acid, calcium, copper, iron, fructose, gibberellic acid, glucose, indole acetic acid, potassium, magnesium, manganese, nitrogen content, sucrose, zeatin, zinc, quantitative analysis, cell differentiation, Turkey (country)
- Olive (Olea europaea L.) is one of the most important crop plants grown in the Mediterranean region. Varying levels of hormones, sugars and mineral nutrient are thought to influence flower bud formation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in endogenous sugar, mineral nutrition and hormone levels in leaf, node and fruit samples of 'Memecik' olive during the induction, initiation and differentiation periods in on (bearing) and off (non-bearing) years. Leaf, node and fruit samples of mature 15-year-old Memecik olive were used. The samples were taken during the induction, initiation and differentiation periods of olive in on (2000) and off (2001) years. Sugar (glucose, fructose and sucrose), mineral nutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu) and hormone [abscisic acid (ABA), indole acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA3, GA4) and zeatin (Z)] levels were determined in on and off years. Hormone and sugar levels were measured by gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu levels were quantified by an atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Nitrogen was determined by the Kjeldahl procedure, and P by a spectrophotometric method. The differences in any of the sugar concentrations, with the exception of fructose, were not significant in on and off years. Hormone levels, however, were significantly different in on and off years. Glucose had the highest concentrations in both years, followed by sucrose and fructose, respectively. The highest macro and micro element concentrations were found to be Ca and Fe, respectively. Thus, the results suggest that carbohydrates and mineral nutrients may not have a direct effect to induce flower initiation. However, high GA3 level exhibited an inhibitory effect on floral formation during the induction and initiation periods. On the other hand, the high concentrations of GA4, ABA and certain cytokinin levels may have a positive effect on flower formation in olive during the induction and initiation periods.