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Cardiac Lipid Metabolism Is Modulated by Casimiroa edulis and Crataegus pubescens Aqueous Extracts in High Fat and Fructose (HFF) Diet‐Fed Obese Rats

Pérez‐Ramírez, Iza F., González‐Dávalos, María L., Mora, Ofelia, Silva, Isaac, Gallegos‐Corona, Marco A., Guzmán‐Maldonado, Salvador H., Reynoso‐Camacho, Rosalía
European journal of lipid science and technology 2019 v.121 no.11 pp. e1900157
Casimiroa edulis, Crataegus, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, alkaloids, animal disease models, anti-inflammatory activity, antioxidant activity, beta oxidation, beverages, bioactive compounds, caffeic acid, cardioprotective effect, carnitine palmitoyltransferase, ceramides, chlorogenic acid, diacylglycerols, diet, fatty acid composition, fatty acids, fatty-acid synthase, fructose, genes, herbs, hypertrophy, lipogenesis, lipotoxicity, obesity, rats, serine C-palmitoyltransferase, steroid saponins
This study aim to evaluate the effect of Casimiroa edulis and Crataegus pubescens aqueous extracts on cardiac lipotoxicity in obese rats. Both extracts decrease cardiac hypertrophy and steatosis in high fat and fructose (HFF)‐diet‐fed obese rats. C. pubescens decreases the cardiac content of 16 and 18 carbon‐length fatty acids, whereas C. edulis extract does not alter the fatty acid profile. Regarding lipotoxic compounds, C. pubescens reduces the cardiac content of 16 and 18 carbon‐length ceramides and diacylglycerols, whereas C. edulis extract reduces ≥20 carbon‐length lipotoxic compounds. Both extracts down‐regulate fatty acid synthase (Fasn) and acetyl‐CoA carboxylase (Acaca) (lipogenesis), glyceril‐3‐phosphate acyltransferase (Gpat) (diacylglycerol synthesis) and serine palmitoyltransferase 1 (Spt1) (ceramide synthesis), and up‐regulate carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (Cpt1) and acyl‐CoA dehydrogenase (Acadm) (β‐oxidation), and the greatest effect is observed with C. pubescens. In addition, C. edulis exerts the greatest cardiac anti‐inflammatory activity, whereas C. pubescens shows the highest cardiac antioxidant activity. The cardioprotective effect of C. pubescens may be associated with its content of (−)‐epigallocatechin gallate, (+)‐catechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and β‐campesterol, whereas the beneficial effect of C. edulis may be related to its high content of steroidal saponins and alkaloids. Therefore, these results demonstrate that both herbal aqueous extracts ameliorate cardiac lipotoxicity in HFF‐diet‐fed rats, and C. pubescens exerts a greater beneficial effect. Practical Applications: This study proposes the characterization of fatty acids and lipotoxic compounds (ceramides and diacylglycerols) of cardiac tissue in combination with the determination of the expression of specific genes related to lipid metabolism to identify the mechanisms associated with the cardioprotective effects of herbal extracts. The results obtained in this study demonstrate the cardioprotective potential of Casimiroa edulis and Crataegus pubescens aqueous extracts through the modulation of cardiac lipid metabolism in high fat and fructose diet fed obese rats. Therefore, these herbs can be used for the development of functional beverages or the extraction of bioactive compounds with cardioprotective effect.